Encapsulation, in one form or another, is nearly universal in large-scale programming across languages. Isolating the code which can access certain state or data makes it easier to maintain and easier to reason about what impact changes to that state could have. In object-oriented languages, the unit of encapsulation is the class, and encapsulation is accomplished by making instance variables private and exposing a set of well-defined operations on that state in the public API.
JavaBean properties (a.k.a. “bean properties” or simply “getters and setters”) arose when the point about making instance variables private was applied universally without paying attention to the “well-defined operations” point.
Bean properties, particularly within an internal code-base or narrowly deployed library, are nothing more than inconvenient public variables.